Pari/GP Reference Documentation | Contents - Global index - GP keyboard shortcuts |
Strprintf addhelp alarm alias allocatemem apply call default errname error extern externstr fold getabstime getenv getheap getrand getstack gettime getwalltime global inline input install kill listcreate listinsert listkill listpop listput listsort localbitprec localprec mapdelete mapget mapisdefined mapput print print1 printf printsep printsep1 printtex quit read readstr readvec select self setrand system trap type uninline version warning whatnow write write1 writebin writetex | |
In addition to the general PARI functions, it is necessary to have some
functions which will be of use specifically for
| |
Strprintf | |
Returns a string built from the remaining arguments according to the
format fmt. The format consists of ordinary characters (not %), printed
unchanged, and conversions specifications. See
| |
addhelp | |
Changes the help message for the symbol
You can attach a help text to an alias, but it will never be
shown: aliases are expanded by the
Without
gp> f(x) = x^2; gp> ?f f = (x)->x^2 Once addhelp is applied to f, the function code is no longer included. It can still be consulted by typing the function name:
gp> addhelp(f, "Square") gp> ?f Square gp> f %2 = (x)->x^2
The library syntax is
| |
alarm | |
If code is omitted, trigger an e_ALARM exception after s seconds, cancelling any previously set alarm; stop a pending alarm if s = 0 or is omitted.
Otherwise, if s is positive, the function evaluates code,
aborting after s seconds. The return value is the value of code if
it ran to completion before the alarm timeout, and a
? p = nextprime(10^25); q = nextprime(10^26); N = p*q; ? E = alarm(1, factor(N)); ? type(E) %3 = "t_ERROR" ? print(E) %4 = error("alarm interrupt after 964 ms.") ? alarm(10, factor(N)); \\ enough time %5 = [ 10000000000000000000000013 1] [100000000000000000000000067 1]
Here is a more involved example: the function
\\ Time-bounded partial factorization default(factor_add_primes,1); timefact(N,sec)= { F = alarm(sec, factor(N)); if (type(F) == "t_ERROR", factor(N, 2^24), F); }
We either return the factorization directly, or replace the
Caveat. It is not possible to set a new alarm within
another
The library syntax is
| |
alias | |
Defines the symbol newsym as an alias for the symbol sym:
? alias("det", "matdet"); ? det([1,2;3,4]) %1 = -2
You are not restricted to ordinary functions, as in the above example:
to alias (from/to) member functions, prefix them with `
? alias("mod", "_.mod"); ? alias("add", "_+_"); ? alias("_.sin", "sin"); ? mod(Mod(x,x^4+1)) %2 = x^4 + 1 ? add(4,6) %3 = 10 ? Pi.sin %4 = 0.E-37 Alias expansion is performed directly by the internal GP compiler. Note that since alias is performed at compilation-time, it does not require any run-time processing, however it only affects GP code compiled after the alias command is evaluated. A slower but more flexible alternative is to use variables. Compare
? fun = sin; ? g(a,b) = intnum(t=a,b,fun(t)); ? g(0, Pi) %3 = 2.0000000000000000000000000000000000000 ? fun = cos; ? g(0, Pi) %5 = 1.8830410776607851098 E-39 with
? alias(fun, sin); ? g(a,b) = intnum(t=a,b,fun(t)); ? g(0,Pi) %2 = 2.0000000000000000000000000000000000000 ? alias(fun, cos); \\ Oops. Does not affect *previous* definition! ? g(0,Pi) %3 = 2.0000000000000000000000000000000000000 ? g(a,b) = intnum(t=a,b,fun(t)); \\ Redefine, taking new alias into account ? g(0,Pi) %5 = 1.8830410776607851098 E-39
A sample alias file
The library syntax is
| |
allocatemem | |
This special operation changes the stack size after initialization. x must be a non-negative integer. If x > 0, a new stack of at least x bytes is allocated. We may allocate more than x bytes if x is way too small, or for alignment reasons: the current formula is max(16*ceil{x/16}, 500032) bytes. If x = 0, the size of the new stack is twice the size of the old one.
This command is much more useful if
* a virtual stack size,
* the desired typical stack size,
* the current stack size, which is less that
The
? \gm2 debugmem = 2 ? default(parisize,"32M") *** Warning: new stack size = 32000000 (30.518 Mbytes). ? bnfinit('x^2+10^30-1) *** bnfinit: collecting garbage in hnffinal, i = 1. *** bnfinit: collecting garbage in hnffinal, i = 2. *** bnfinit: collecting garbage in hnffinal, i = 3.
and so on for hundred of lines. Then, provided the
In most cases,
Deprecated: when
Thus, increasing
allocatemem(); x = 1; \\ This will not set
In fact, all loops are immediately exited, user functions terminated, and
the rest of the sequence following
read("file.gp"); x = 1
were
The reason for these unfortunate side-effects is that, with
The library syntax is
| |
apply | |
Apply the
? apply(x->x^2, [1,2,3,4]) %1 = [1, 4, 9, 16] ? apply(x->x^2, [1,2;3,4]) %2 = [1 4] [9 16] ? apply(x->x^2, 4*x^2 + 3*x+ 2) %3 = 16*x^2 + 9*x + 4
Note that many functions already act componentwise on
vectors or matrices, but they almost never act on lists; in this
case,
? L = List([Mod(1,3), Mod(2,4)]); ? lift(L) *** at top-level: lift(L) *** ^------- *** lift: incorrect type in lift. ? apply(lift, L); %2 = List([1, 2])
Remark. For v a
[g(x) | x <- v, f(x)] [x | x <- v, f(x)] [g(x) | x <- v] are available as shortcuts for
apply(g, select(f, Vec(v))) select(f, Vec(v)) apply(g, Vec(v)) respectively:
? L = List([Mod(1,3), Mod(2,4)]); ? [ lift(x) | x<-L ] %2 = [1, 2]
The library syntax is
| |
call | |
A = [a_1,..., a_n] being a vector and f being a function, returns the
evaluation of f(a_1,...,a_n).
f can also be the name of a built-in GP function.
If # A = 1, This function is useful * when writing a variadic function, to call another one:
fprintf(file,format,args[..]) = write(file,call(Strprintf,[format,args])) * when dealing with function arguments with unspecified arity The function below implements a global memoization interface:
memo=Map(); memoize(f,A[..])= { my(res); if(!mapisdefined(memo, [f,A], &res), res = call(f,A); mapput(memo,[f,A],res)); res; } for example:
? memoize(factor,2^128+1) %3 = [59649589127497217,1;5704689200685129054721,1] ? ## *** last result computed in 76 ms. ? memoize(factor,2^128+1) %4 = [59649589127497217,1;5704689200685129054721,1] ? ## *** last result computed in 0 ms. ? memoize(ffinit,3,3) %5 = Mod(1,3)*x^3+Mod(1,3)*x^2+Mod(1,3)*x+Mod(2,3) ? fibo(n)=if(n==0,0,n==1,1,memoize(fibo,n-2)+memoize(fibo,n-1)); ? fibo(100) %7 = 354224848179261915075
* to call operators through their internal names without using
matnbelts(M) = call("_*_",matsize(M))
The library syntax is
| |
default | |
Returns the default corresponding to keyword key. If val is
present, sets the default to val first (which is subject to string
expansion first). Typing
The library syntax is
| |
errname | |
Returns the type of the error message
The library syntax is
| |
error | |
Outputs its argument list (each of
them interpreted as a string), then interrupts the running
error("n = ", n, " is not squarefree!")
| |
extern | |
The string str is the name of an external command (i.e. one you
would type from your UNIX shell prompt). This command is immediately run and
its output fed into
The library syntax is
| |
externstr | |
The string str is the name of an external command (i.e. one you would type from your UNIX shell prompt). This command is immediately run and its output is returned as a vector of GP strings, one component per output line.
The library syntax is
| |
fold | |
Apply the
? fold((x,y)->x*y, [1,2,3,4]) %1 = 24 ? fold((x,y)->[x,y], [1,2,3,4]) %2 = [[[1, 2], 3], 4] ? fold((x,f)->f(x), [2,sqr,sqr,sqr]) %3 = 256 ? fold((x,y)->(x+y)/(1-x*y),[1..5]) %4 = -9/19 ? bestappr(tan(sum(i=1,5,atan(i)))) %5 = -9/19
The library syntax is
| |
getabstime | |
Returns the CPU time (in milliseconds) elapsed since
my (t = getabstime()); ... print("Time: ", getabstime() - t);
For a version giving wall-clock time, see
The library syntax is
| |
getenv | |
Return the value of the environment variable
The library syntax is
| |
getheap | |
Returns a two-component row vector giving the number of objects on the heap and the amount of memory they occupy in long words. Useful mainly for debugging purposes.
The library syntax is
| |
getrand | |
Returns the current value of the seed used by the
pseudo-random number generator
The library syntax is
| |
getstack | |
Returns the current value of
The library syntax is
| |
gettime | |
Returns the CPU time (in milliseconds) used since either the last call to
For a reentrant version, see
For a version giving wall-clock time, see
The library syntax is
| |
getwalltime | |
Returns the time (in milliseconds) elapsed since the UNIX Epoch (1970-01-01 00:00:00 (UTC)).
my (t = getwalltime()); ... print("Time: ", getwalltime() - t);
The library syntax is
| |
global | |
Obsolete. Scheduled for deletion.
| |
inline | |
(Experimental) declare x,..., z as inline variables. Such variables
behave like lexically scoped variable (see my()) but with unlimited scope.
It is however possible to exit the scope by using
| |
input | |
Reads a string, interpreted as a GP expression,
from the input file, usually standard input (i.e. the keyboard). If a
sequence of expressions is given, the result is the result of the last
expression of the sequence. When using this instruction, it is useful to
prompt for the string by using the
The library syntax is
| |
install | |
Loads from dynamic library lib the function name. Assigns to it
the name gpname in this
Most importantly,
GEN addii(GEN x, GEN y)
adds two PARI integers, and is not directly accessible under
? install("addii", "GG") ? addii(1, 2) %1 = 3
It also allows to add external functions to the
? install(system, vs, sys,/*omitted*/) ? sys("ls gp*") gp.c gp.h gp_rl.c
This works because Re-installing a function will print a warning and update the prototype code if needed. However, it will not reload a symbol from the library, even if the latter has been recompiled.
Prototype. We only give a simplified description here, covering
most functions, but there are many more possibilities. The full documentation
is available in
??prototype
* First character
* One letter for each mandatory argument, in the same order as they appear
in the argument list:
* We also have special constructs for optional arguments and default values:
*
*
* For instance the prototype corresponding to
long issquareall(GEN x, GEN *n = NULL)
is
Caution. This function may not work on all systems, especially
when
The library syntax is
| |
kill | |
Restores the symbol
? z = y = 1; y %1 = 1 ? kill(y) ? y \\ restored to ``undefined'' status %2 = y ? variable() %3 = [x, y, z] \\ but the variable name y is still known, with y > z !
For the same reason, killing a user function (which is an ordinary
variable holding a
If the symbol is attached to a variable --- user functions being an
important special case ---, one may use the quote operator
? x = 1; addhelp(x, "foo"); x %1 = 1 ? x = 'x; x \\ same as 'kill', except we don't delete help. %2 = x ? ?x foo
On the other hand,
? alias(fun, sin); ? kill(fun); ? install(addii, GG); ? kill(addii);
The library syntax is
| |
listcreate | |
This function is obsolete, use Creates an empty list. This routine used to have a mandatory argument, which is now ignored (for backward compatibility).
| |
listinsert | |
Inserts the object x at
position n in L (which must be of type
The library syntax is
| |
listkill | |
Obsolete, retained for backward compatibility. Just use
The library syntax is
| |
listpop | |
Removes the n-th element of the list
list (which must be of type
The library syntax is
| |
listput | |
Sets the n-th element of the list
list (which must be of type
? L = List(); ? listput(L, 1) %2 = 1 ? listput(L, 2) %3 = 2 ? L %4 = List([1, 2])
You may put an element into an occupied cell (not changing the
list length), but it is easier to use the standard
? listput(L, 3, 1) \\ insert at position 1 %5 = 3 ? L %6 = List([3, 2]) ? L[2] = 4 \\ simpler %7 = List([3, 4]) ? L[10] = 1 \\ can't insert beyond the end of the list *** at top-level: L[10]=1 *** ^------ *** non-existent component: index > 2 ? listput(L, 1, 10) \\ but listput can %8 = 1 ? L %9 = List([3, 2, 1])
This function runs in time O(#L) in the worst case (when the list must
be reallocated), but in time O(1) on average: any number of successive
The library syntax is
| |
listsort | |
Sorts the
? L = List([1,2,4,1,3,-1]); listsort(L); L %1 = List([-1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 4]) ? setsearch(L, 4) %2 = 6 ? setsearch(L, -2) %3 = 0
This is faster than the If flag is non-zero, suppresses all repeated coefficients.
The library syntax is
| |
localbitprec | |
Set the real precision to p bits in the dynamic scope. All computations
are performed as if
my(bit = default(realbitprecision)); default(realbitprecision,p); ... default(realbitprecision, bit);
but is both less cumbersome, cleaner (no need to manipulate
a global variable, which in fact never changes and is only temporarily masked)
and more robust: if the above computation is interrupted or an exception
occurs,
Such
? f()=bitprecision(1.0); ? f() %2 = 128 ? localbitprec(1000); f() %3 = 1024
Note that the bit precision of data (
Warning. Changing
? \p38 ? localprec(19); default(realprecision,1000); Pi %1 = 3.141592653589793239 ? \p realprecision = 1001 significant digits (1000 digits displayed)
Indeed,
| |
localprec | |
Set the real precision to p in the dynamic scope. All computations
are performed as if
my(prec = default(realprecision)); default(realprecision,p); ... default(realprecision, prec);
but is both less cumbersome, cleaner (no need to manipulate
a global variable, which in fact never changes and is only temporarily masked)
and more robust: if the above computation is interrupted or an exception
occurs,
Such
? f()=precision(1.); ? f() %2 = 38 ? localprec(19); f() %3 = 19
Warning. Changing
? \p38 ? localprec(19); default(realprecision,100); Pi %1 = 3.141592653589793239 ? \p realprecision = 115 significant digits (100 digits displayed)
Indeed,
| |
mapdelete | |
Removes x from the domain of the map M.
? M = Map(["a",1; "b",3; "c",7]); ? mapdelete(M,"b"); ? Mat(M) ["a" 1] ["c" 7]
The library syntax is
| |
mapget | |
Returns the image of x by the map M.
? M=Map(["a",23;"b",43]); ? mapget(M,"a") %2 = 23 ? mapget(M,"b") %3 = 43 Raises an exception when the key x is not present in M.
? mapget(M,"c") *** at top-level: mapget(M,"c") *** ^------------- *** mapget: non-existent component in mapget: index not in map
The library syntax is
| |
mapisdefined | |
Returns true (1) if
? M1 = Map([1, 10; 2, 20]); ? mapisdefined(M1,3) %1 = 0 ? mapisdefined(M1, 1, &z) %2 = 1 ? z %3 = 10
? M2 = Map(); N = 19; ? for (a=0, N-1, mapput(M2, a^3%N, a)); ? {for (a=0, N-1, if (mapisdefined(M2, a, &b), printf("%d is the cube of %d mod %d\n",a,b,N)));} 0 is the cube of 0 mod 19 1 is the cube of 11 mod 19 7 is the cube of 9 mod 19 8 is the cube of 14 mod 19 11 is the cube of 17 mod 19 12 is the cube of 15 mod 19 18 is the cube of 18 mod 19
The library syntax is
| |
mapput | |
Associates x to y in the map M. The value y can be retrieved
with
? M = Map(); ? mapput(M, "foo", 23); ? mapput(M, 7718, "bill"); ? mapget(M, "foo") %4 = 23 ? mapget(M, 7718) %5 = "bill" ? Vec(M) \\ keys %6 = [7718, "foo"] ? Mat(M) %7 = [ 7718 "bill"] ["foo" 23]
The library syntax is
| |
Outputs its (string) arguments in raw format, ending with a newline.
| |
print1 | |
Outputs its (string) arguments in raw
format, without ending with a newline. Note that you can still embed newlines
within your strings, using the
| |
printf | |
This function is based on the C library command of the same name. It prints its arguments according to the format fmt, which specifies how subsequent arguments are converted for output. The format is a character string composed of zero or more directives:
* ordinary characters (not
* conversions specifications (
More precisely, a conversion specification consists in a
The flag characters. The character
*
*
*
*
*
The field width. An optional decimal digit string (whose first
digit is non-zero) specifying a minimum field width. If the value has
fewer characters than the field width, it is padded with spaces on the left
(or right, if the left-adjustment flag has been given). In no case does a
small field width cause truncation of a field; if the value is wider than
the field width, the field is expanded to contain the conversion result.
Instead of a decimal digit string, one may write
The precision. An optional precision in the form of a period
(`
The length modifier. This is ignored under
*
* The conversion specifier. A character that specifies the type of conversion to be applied.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
* Examples:
? printf("floor: %d, field width 3: %3d, with sign: %+3d\n", Pi, 1, 2); floor: 3, field width 3: 1, with sign: +2 ? printf("%.5g %.5g %.5g\n",123,123/456,123456789); 123.00 0.26974 1.2346 e8 ? printf("%-2.5s:%2.5s:%2.5s\n", "P", "PARI", "PARIGP"); P :PARI:PARIG \\ min field width and precision given by arguments ? x = 23; y=-1/x; printf("x=%+06.2f y=%+0*.*f\n", x, 6, 2, y); x=+23.00 y=-00.04 \\ minimum fields width 5, pad left with zeroes ? for (i = 2, 5, printf("%05d\n", 10^i)) 00100 01000 10000 100000 \\ don't truncate fields whose length is larger than the minimum width ? printf("%.2f |%06.2f|", Pi,Pi) 3.14 | 3.14| All numerical conversions apply recursively to the entries of vectors and matrices:
? printf("%4d", [1,2,3]); [ 1, 2, 3] ? printf("%5.2f", mathilbert(3)); [ 1.00 0.50 0.33] [ 0.50 0.33 0.25] [ 0.33 0.25 0.20]
Technical note. Our implementation of
* whenever a precision is missing, the current
* in conversion style
* in conversion style
* in conversion
| |
printsep | |
Outputs its (string) arguments in raw format, ending with a newline. Successive entries are separated by sep:
? printsep(":", 1,2,3,4) 1:2:3:4
| |
printsep1 | |
Outputs its (string) arguments in raw format, without ending with a newline. Successive entries are separated by sep:
? printsep1(":", 1,2,3,4);print("|") 1:2:3:4
| |
printtex | |
Outputs its (string) arguments in TeX format. This output can then be
used in a TeX manuscript.
The printing is done on the standard output. If you want to print it to a
file you should use
Another possibility is to enable the
default(logfile, "new.tex"); default(log, 1); printtex(result);
| |
quit | |
Exits
| |
read | |
Reads in the file
filename (subject to string expansion). If filename is
omitted, re-reads the last file that was fed into
If a GP
In case the file you read in contains an
The library syntax is
| |
readstr | |
Reads in the file filename and return a vector of GP strings,
each component containing one line from the file. If filename is
omitted, re-reads the last file that was fed into
The library syntax is
| |
readvec | |
Reads in the file
filename (subject to string expansion). If filename is
omitted, re-reads the last file that was fed into
1 2 3 then we will get:
? \r a %1 = 1 %2 = 2 %3 = 3 ? read(a) %4 = 3 ? readvec(a) %5 = [1, 2, 3]
In general a sequence is just a single line, but as usual braces and
The library syntax is
| |
select | |
We first describe the default behavior, when flag is 0 or omitted.
Given a vector or list
? select(x->isprime(x), vector(50,i,i^2+1)) %1 = [2, 5, 17, 37, 101, 197, 257, 401, 577, 677, 1297, 1601] ? select(x->(x<100), %) %2 = [2, 5, 17, 37]
returns the primes of the form i^2+1 for some i ≤ 50,
then the elements less than 100 in the preceding result. The
Remark. For v a
[g(x) | x <- v, f(x)] [x | x <- v, f(x)] [g(x) | x <- v] are available as shortcuts for
apply(g, select(f, Vec(v))) select(f, Vec(v)) apply(g, Vec(v)) respectively:
? [ x | x <- vector(50,i,i^2+1), isprime(x) ] %1 = [2, 5, 17, 37, 101, 197, 257, 401, 577, 677, 1297, 1601] If flag = 1, this function returns instead the indices of the selected elements, and not the elements themselves (indirect selection):
? V = vector(50,i,i^2+1); ? select(x->isprime(x), V, 1) %2 = Vecsmall([1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 16, 20, 24, 26, 36, 40]) ? vecextract(V, %) %3 = [2, 5, 17, 37, 101, 197, 257, 401, 577, 677, 1297, 1601] The following function lists the elements in (ℤ/Nℤ)^*:
? invertibles(N) = select(x->gcd(x,N) == 1, [1..N]) Finally
? select(x->x, M)
selects the non-0 entries in
? select(x->!isprime(x), vector(50,i,i^2+1))
The library syntax is
| |
self | |
Return the calling function or closure as a
? (n->if(n==0,1,n*self()(n-1)))(5) %1 = 120
The library syntax is
| |
setrand | |
Reseeds the random number generator using the seed n. No value is
returned. The seed is either a technical array output by
The library syntax is
| |
system | |
str is a string representing a system command. This command is
executed, its output written to the standard output (this won't get into your
logfile), and control returns to the PARI system. This simply calls the C
The library syntax is
| |
trap | |
This function is obsolete, use
This function tries to
evaluate seq, trapping runtime error e, that is effectively preventing
it from aborting computations in the usual way; the recovery sequence
rec is executed if the error occurs and the evaluation of rec
becomes the result of the command. If e is omitted, all exceptions are
trapped. See Section se:errorrec for an introduction to error recovery
under
? \\ trap division by 0 ? inv(x) = trap (e_INV, INFINITY, 1/x) ? inv(2) %1 = 1/2 ? inv(0) %2 = INFINITY Note that seq is effectively evaluated up to the point that produced the error, and the recovery sequence is evaluated starting from that same context, it does not "undo" whatever happened in the other branch (restore the evaluation context):
? x = 1; trap (, /* recover: */ x, /* try: */ x = 0; 1/x) %1 = 0
Note. The interface is currently not adequate for trapping
individual exceptions. In the current version 2.10.0, the following keywords
are recognized, but the name list will be expanded and changed in the
future (all library mode errors can be trapped: it's a matter of defining
the keywords to
The library syntax is
| |
type | |
This is useful only under
The library syntax is
| |
uninline | |
(Experimental) Exit the scope of all current
| |
version | |
Returns the current version number as a This function is present in all versions of PARI following releases 2.3.4 (stable) and 2.4.3 (testing).
Unless you are working with multiple development versions, you probably only
care about the 3 first numeric components. In any case, the
if (lex(version(), [2,3,5]) >= 0, \\ code to be executed if we are running 2.3.5 or more recent. , \\ compatibility code );
On a number of different machines,
%1 = [2, 3, 4] \\ released version, stable branch %1 = [2, 4, 3] \\ released version, testing branch %1 = [2, 6, 1, 15174, ""505ab9b"] \\ development In particular, if you are only working with released versions, the first line of the gp introductory message can be emulated by
[M,m,p] = version(); printf("GP/PARI CALCULATOR Version %s.%s.%s", M,m,p); If you are working with many development versions of PARI/GP, the 4th and/or 5th components can be profitably included in the name of your logfiles, for instance.
Technical note. For development versions obtained via
The library syntax is
| |
warning | |
Outputs the message "user warning" and the argument list (each of them interpreted as a string). If colors are enabled, this warning will be in a different color, making it easy to distinguish.
warning(n, " is very large, this might take a while.")
| |
whatnow | |
If keyword key is the name of a function that was present in GP version 1.39.15, outputs the new function name and syntax, if it changed at all. Functions that where introduced since then, then modified are also recognized.
? whatnow("mu") New syntax: mu(n) ===> moebius(n) moebius(x): Moebius function of x. ? whatnow("sin") This function did not change When a function was removed and the underlying functionality is not available under a compatible interface, no equivalent is mentioned:
? whatnow("buchfu") This function no longer exists
(The closest equivalent would be to set
| |
write | |
Writes (appends) to filename the remaining arguments, and appends a
newline (same output as
| |
write1 | |
Writes (appends) to filename the remaining arguments without a
trailing newline (same output as
| |
writebin | |
Writes (appends) to
filename the object x in binary format. This format is not human
readable, but contains the exact internal structure of x, and is much
faster to save/load than a string expression, as would be produced by
If x is omitted, saves all user variables from the session, together with
their names. Reading such a "named object" back in a
x = 1; writebin("log")
reading
Just as a regular input file, a binary file can be compressed
using
In the present implementation, the binary files are architecture dependent
and compatibility with future versions of
The library syntax is
| |
writetex | |
As
| |